People

David W. McDonald, PhD

Professor, Human Centered Design & Engineering
Chair, Human Centered Design & Engineering
University of Washington

hcdechr@uw.edu
Sieg Hall, Room 428
UW HCDE Box 352315, Seattle, WA 98195

Dr. David W. McDonald is Professor and Chair of the Department of Human Centered Design & Engineering (HCDE) in the College of Engineering at University of Washington. Dr. McDonald’s research focuses on the design and implementation of systems that support large-scale collaboration. He has published research on ubiquitous sensing for behavior change, collaboration in distributed contributor systems, collaborative authoring, recommendation systems, and public use of large screen displays. His research interests span Social Computing, Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI).

Dr. McDonald earned his Ph.D. in Information and Computer Science at the University of California, Irvine. At UC Irvine he was part of the Computing, Organizations, Policy and Society (CORPS) group. He worked at FX Palo Alto Laboratory in the Personal and Mobile technology group and at AT&T Labs in the Human Computer Interaction group. Dr. McDonald served as a Program Officer for the Human Centered Computing (HCC), Network Science and Engineering (NetSE), and Social Computational Systems (SoCS) programs at the National Science Foundation (NSF).

Education

PhD., Information & Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, CA
Dissertation: Supporting Nuance in Groupware Design: Moving from Naturalistic Expertise Location to Expertise Recommendation

M.S., Information & Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, CA

M.S., Math & Computer Science, California State University, Hayward, CA

B.A., Cognitive Science, University of California, Los Angeles, CA

Professional Interests

Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW); human-computer interaction (HCI); large scale information systems.

National Awards and Honors

2013 Distinguished Paper Award
American Medical Informatics Association Fall Symposium (AMIA)

2008 Best Paper Award
AAAI International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM)

2008 Honorable Mention
ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)

2003 UW Royalty Research Scholar
University of Washington

1999 Regent’s Dissertation Fellowship
University of California, Irvine

1983 Chancellor’s Scholar
University of California, Los Angeles

Professional Affiliations

Association for Computing Machinery, October 1999 – present
ACM SIGCHI, October 1999 – present

Publications

Refereed archival journal publications

Consolvo, S., P. Klasnja, D. W. McDonald and J. Landay. (2014) Designing for Healthy Lifestyles: Design Considerations for Mobile Technologies to Encourage Consumer Health and Wellness. Foundations and Trends in Human–Computer Interaction. 6 (3-4) http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1100000040

Toscos, T., S. Consolvo and D. W. McDonald. (2011) Barriers to Physical Activity: A Study of Self-revelation in an Online Community. Journal of Medical Systems (JOMS). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10916-011-9721-2.

Sease, R. and D. W. McDonald. (2011) The Organization of Home Media. ACM Transactions on Computer Human Interaction (ToCHI). 18 (2), Article 9.

Lee, S., D. W. McDonald, N. Anderson and P. Tarczy-Hornoch. (2009) Incorporating Collaboratory Concepts into Informatics in Support of Translational Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 78, 10-21.

McDonald, D. W., J. F. McCarthy S. Soroczak, D. Nguyen, and A. M. Rashid. (2008) Proactive Displays to Support Awareness in Fluid Social Environments. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction. 14 (4), 16:1-16:31. (Citations: 50)

Weng, C., D. W. McDonald, D. Sparks, J. McCoy and J. H. Gennari. (2006) Participatory Design of a Collaborative Clinical Trial Protocol Writing System. International Journal of Medical Informatics. 76 (S1), 245-251.

Terveen, L. G. and D. W. McDonald. (2005) Social Matching: A Framework and Research Agenda. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction. 12 (3), 401-434. (Citations: 236)

Reddy, M.C., D. W. McDonald, W. Pratt and M. M. Shabot. (2005) Technology, Work, and Information Flows: Lessons from the implementation of a wireless alert pager system. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 38 (3), 229-238.

Gennari, J.H., C. Weng, J. Bendetti and D. W. McDonald (2005) Asynchronous communication among clinical researchers: A study for systems design. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 74 (10), 797-807.

Pratt, W., M.C. Reddy, D. W. McDonald, P. Tarczy-Hornoch and J. H. Gennari. (2004) Incorporating Ideas from Computer-Supported Cooperative Work. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 37 (2), 128-137. (Citations: 146)

Ackerman, M. S., and D. W. McDonald. (2000) Collaborative Support for Informal Information in Collective Memory Systems. Information Systems Frontiers: A Journal of Research and Innovation, 2 (3/4), 333-347. (Citations: 33)

Terveen, L. G., W. Hill, B. Amento, D. McDonald, and J. Creter. (1997) PHOAKS: A System for Sharing Recommendations. Communications of the ACM, 40 (3), 59-62. (Citations: 603)

Conference proceedings and other non-journal articles

Fully refereed publications

Li, V., D. W. McDonald, E.V. Eikey, J. Sweeney, J. Escajeda, G. Dubey, K. Riley, E.S. Poole and E. Hekler (accepted) Losing it Online: Characterizing Participation in and Online Weight Loss Community. Proceedings of the ACM 2014 International Conference on Supporting Group Work (GROUP'14).

Morgan, J. T., M. Gilbert, D. W. McDonald and M. Zachry (2014) Editing Beyond Articles: Diversity & Dynamics of Teamwork in Open Collaborations. Proceedings of the 2014 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW’14).

Huh, J., D. W. McDonald, A. Hartzler and W. Pratt, (2013) Patient Moderator Interaction in Online Health Communities. Proceedings of the American Medical Informatics Association Fall Symposium (AMIA'13). (Received the “Distinguished Paper Award”)

Park, M., D. W. McDonald and M. Cha (2013) Perception Differences between the Depressed and Non-Depressed Users in Twitter. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM-2013). (21% acceptance rate)

Morgan, J. T., M. Gilbert, D. W. McDonald and M. Zachry (2013) Project talk: coordination work and group membership in WikiProjects. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Open Collaboration (WikiSym ‘13).

Gilbert, M., J. T. Morgan, D. W. McDonald and M. Zachry (2013) Managing complexity: strategies for group awareness and coordinated action in Wikipedia. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Open Collaboration (WikiSym ‘13).

Thornton*, K. and D. W. McDonald (2012) Tagging Wikipedia: Collaboratively Creating a Category System. Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Conference on Supporting Group Work (GROUP’12).

McDonald, D. W., S. Gokhman and M. Zachry (2012) Building for Social Translucence: A Domain Analysis and Prototype System. Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW’12).

McDonald, D. W., S. Javanmardi and M. Zachry (2011) Finding Patterns in Behavioral Observations by Automatically Labeling Forms of Wikiwork in Barnstars. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration (WikiSym'11).

Javanmardi, S., D. W. McDonald and C. Lopes (2011) Vandalism Detection in Wikipedia: A High-Performing, Feature–Rich Model and its Reduction Through Lasso. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration (WikiSym'11).

Derthick K., P. Tsao, T. Kriplean, A. Borning, M. Zachry and D. W. McDonald (2011) Collaborative Sensemaking during Admin Permission Granting in Wikipedia. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCII'11).

Toscos, T., S. Consolvo and D. W. McDonald (2010) Is it normal to be this sore?: Using an Online Forum to Investigate Barriers to Physical Activity. Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Health Informatics Symposium (IHI'10).

Ackerman, M., J. Muramatsu and D. W. McDonald (2010) Social Regulation in an Online Game: Uncovering the Problematics of Code. Proceedings of the ACM 2010 International Conference on Supporting Group Work (GROUP'10).

Civan-Hartzler, A., D. W. McDonald, C. Powell, M. M. Skeels, M. Mukai, and W. Pratt (2010) Bringing the Field into Focus: User-centered Design of a Patient Expertise Locator. Proceedings of the 2010 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'10).

Klasnja, P., S. Consolvo, D. W. McDonald, J. A. Landay and W. Pratt (2009) Using Mobile & Personal Sensing Technologies to Support Health Behavior Change in Everyday Life: Lessons Learned. Proceedings of the American Medical Informatics Association Fall Symposium (AMIA'09). 338-342. (Citations: 33)

Sease, R. and D. W. McDonald (2009) Musical Fingerprints: Collaboration around Home Media Collections. Proceedings of the ACM 2009 International Conference on Supporting Group Work (GROUP'09). 331-340.

Civan, A., D. W. McDonald, K. T. Unruh and W. Pratt (2009) Locating Patient Expertise in Everyday Life. Proceedings of the ACM 2009 International Conference on Supporting Group Work (GROUP'09). 291-300.

Consolvo, S., P. Klasnja, D. W. McDonald and J. A. Landay (2009) Goal-Setting Considerations for Persuasive Technologies that Encourage Physical Activity. Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Persuasive Technology (Persuasive'09). (Citations: 64)

Torrey, C., E. Churchill, and D. W. McDonald (2009) Learning How: The Search for Craft Knowledge on the Internet. Proceedings of the 2009 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'09). (Citations: 56)

Consolvo, S., D. W. McDonald, and J. A. Landay (2009) Theory-Driven Design Strategies for Technologies that Support Behavior Change in Everyday Life. Proceedings of the 2009 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'09). (Citations: 230)

Kriplean, T., I., Beschastnikh, and D. W. McDonald (2008) Articulations of Wikiwork: Uncovering Valued Work in Wikipedia through Barnstars. Proceedings of the 2008 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW’08). (Received “Honorable Mention” in the CSCW’08 best paper competition.) (23% acceptance rate) (Citations: 100)

Consolvo, S., P. Klasnja, D. W. McDonald, D. Avrahami, J. Froehlich, L. LeGrand, R. Libby, K. Mosher, and J. A. Landay (2008) Flowers or a Robot Army? Encouraging Awareness & Activity with Personal Mobile Displays. Proceeding of the Tenth International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp'08). (Citations: 168)

Consolvo, S., D. W. McDonald, T. Toscos, M. Y. Chen, J. Froehlich*, B. Harrison, P. Klasnja, A. LaMarca, L. LeGrand, R. Libby, I. Smith and J. A. Landay (2008) Activity Sensing in the Wild: A field trial of UbiFit Garden. Proceeding of the twenty-sixth annual SIGCHI Conference on Human factors in Computing Systems (CHI'08). 1797-1806. (22% acceptance rate) (Citations: 435)

Beschastnikh, I., T. Kriplean, and D. W. McDonald (2008) Wikipedian Self-Governance in Action: Motivating the Policy Lens. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM'08). (Received “Best Paper” award at ICWSM’08.) (Citations: 78)

Pedersen, E. and D. W. McDonald (2008) Relating Documents via User Activity: The Missing Link. Proceedings of the ACM 2008 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI'08). 389-392.

Kriplean, T., I. Beschastnikh, D. W. McDonald and S. Golder. Community, Consensus, Coercion, Control: CS*W or How Policy Mediates Mass Participation. In Proceedings of the ACM 2007 International Conference on Supporting Group Work (GROUP'07), 2007. 167-176. (23% acceptance rate) (Citations: 83)

Torrey, C., D. W. McDonald, B. N. Schilit, and S. Bly. How-To Pages: Informal Systems of Expertise Sharing. In Proceedings of the Tenth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (ECSCW 2007), 2007. 391-410. (19% acceptance rate) (Citations: 42)

McDonald, D. W. Visual Conversation Styles in Web Communities. Proceedings of the 40th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-40). 2007.

McDonald, D. W., C. Weng and J.H. Gennari. The Multiple Views of Inter-organizational Authoring In Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW'04), 2004: 564-573. (30% acceptance rate)

McCarthy, J., D. W. McDonald, S. Soroczak, D. Nguyen and A. M. Rashid. Augmenting the Social Space of an Academic Conference. In Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW'04), 2004: 39-48. (30% acceptance rate) (Citations: 74)

Weng, C., D. W. McDonald and J. H. Gennari. Participatory Design of a Clinical Trial Protocol Writing System. In IT in Health Care: Socio-technical Approaches 2nd International Conference (ITHC’04), 2004. (Citations: 29)

Weng, C., J. H. Gennari and D. W. McDonald. A Collaborative Clinical Trial Protocol Writing System. In Proceedings of the 2004 International Medical Informatics Conference (MedInfo'04), 2004: 1481-1485.

Gennari, J. H., C. Weng, D. W. McDonald, J. Benedetti and S. Green. An Ethnographic Study of Collaborative Clinical Trial Protocol Writing. In Proceedings of the 2004 International Medical Informatics Conference (MedInfo'04), 2004: 1461-1465.

Reddy, M., W. Pratt, D. W. McDonald and M. M. Shabot. Challenges to Physicians' Use of A Wireless Alert Pager. Proceedings of the American Medical Informatics Association Fall Symposium (AMIA'03), 2003: 544-548.

McDonald, D. W. Recommending Collaboration with Social Networks: A Comparative Evaluation. Proceedings of the 2003 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'03), 2003: 593-600. (16% acceptance rate) (Citations: 171)

Schillit, B. N., A. LaMarca, G. Borriello, W. G. Griswold, D. W. McDonald, E. Lazowska, A. Balachandran, J. Hong and V. Iverson. Challenge: Ubiquitous Location-Aware Computing and the “Place Lab” Initiative. The 1st ACM International Workshop on Wireless Mobile Applications and Services on WLAN (WMASH’03), 2003.

McDonald, D. W. Evaluating Expertise Recommendations. Proceedings of the 2001 International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work (GROUP '01), 2001: 214-223. (Citations: 77)

McDonald, D. W., and M. S. Ackerman. Expertise Recommender: A Flexible Recommendation System and Architecture. Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW '00), 2000: 231-240. (18% acceptance rate) (Citations: 391)

Lutters, W.G., M. S. Ackerman, J. Boster and D. W. McDonald. Mapping Knowledge Networks in Organizations: Creating a Knowledge Mapping Instrument. Proceedings of the Association of Information Systems Americas Conference (AMCIS '00), 2000: 2014-2018.

McDonald, D. W., and M. S. Ackerman. Just Talk to Me: A Field Study of Expertise Location. Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW '98), 1998: 315-324. (19% acceptance rate) (Citations: 319)

Terveen, L. G., W. Hill, B. Amento, D. McDonald and J. Creter. Building Task-Specific Interfaces to High Volume Conversational Data. Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '97), 1997: 226-233. (24% acceptance rate)

Ackerman, M. S., and D. W. McDonald. Answer Garden 2: Merging Organizational Memory with Collaborative Help. Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW '96), 1996: 97-105. (Citations: 389)

Refereed by abstract only (Workshops & Extended Abstracts)

Hartzler A, D. McDonald, A. Park, J. Huh and W. Pratt. Mentor matching in peer health communities. Poster abstract in Proceedings of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) 2012.

Huh J, M. Yetisgen-Yildiz, A. Hartzler, D. McDonald, A. Park and W. Pratt. Toward Automatic Weaving of Medical Advice with Patient Experiences Using Text Classification. Poster abstract in Proceedings of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) 2012.

Park A, A. Hartzler, J. Huh, D. McDonald and W. Pratt. Extracting Everyday Health Interests from Online Communities. Poster abstract in Proceedings of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) 2012.

Sajnani, H., S. Javanmardi, D. W. McDonald and C. Lopes. Multi-Label Classification of Short Text: A Study on Wikipedia Barnstars. in “Analyzing Microtext” Workshop at the Twenty-Fifth Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-11), 2011.

McDonald, D. W. (2011) Task Dependency and the Organization of the Crowd. In “Crowdsourcing and Human Computation: Systems, Studies and Platforms” Workshop at the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’11).

Le, L., I. Beschastnikh, and D. W. McDonald (2010) Self-Presentation: Structured and semi-structured user profiles. Presented at the “Models, theories and methods of studying online behavior” Workshop at the ACM 2010 SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'10).

Beschastnikh, I., D. W. McDonald, M. Zachry, T. Kriplean and A. Borning (2009) Promoting Quality in Wikipedia through Enculturation. Presented at the “Supporting the Amateur” Workshop at the ACM 2009 International Conference on Supporting Group Work (GROUP'09).

McDonald, D. W., I. Beschastnikh, T. Kriplean, A. Borning and M. Zachry. System Design for Social Translucence in Socially Mediating Technologies. Workshop on “Social Mediating Technologies: Developing the Research Agenda” at the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'09).

Kriplean, T., I. Beschastnikh,  A. Borning, D. W. McDonald and M. Zachry. Designing Mediating Spaces Between Citizens and Government. Workshop on “Social Mediating Technologies: Developing the Research Agenda” at the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'09).

Sease, R. and D. W. McDonald. Collaborating Around Growing media Collections in the Home. Workshop on “Designing for Families” at the ACM 2008 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW’08).

McDonald, D. W., K. A. Smith, N. Karlova. Problem Solving Probes: A Method for Discovering Conceptual Disconnects with Digital Living Technologies. Workshop on “Designing for Families” at the ACM 2008 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW’08).

McDonald, D. W. Social Computing: A Research Topic in Search of Disciplinarity. Workshop on Research Directions for Social Computing at the ACM 2007 International Conference on Supporting Group Work (GROUP'07).

Lin, P. and D. W. McDonald. Exploring the social realities of online communities through the lens of a Human Information Behavior framework. The 2nd annual Social Informatics ASIST preconference research symposium Interrogating Information Realities of Information and Communication Systems. The 2006 Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science & Technology.

Soroczak S. and D. W. McDonald. Collaborating Over Project Schedules. Workshop on Supporting the Social Side of Large-Scale Software Development. The 2006 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW'06).

McDonald, D.W., B. N. Schilit, and S. Bly. IT@Home: Unraveling Complexities of Networked Devices in the Home. Proceedings of the ACM 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'06) Extended Abstracts, 2006: 1711-1713.

Bly, S., B. N. Schilit, D. W. McDonald, B. Rosario and Y. Saint-Hilaire. Broken Expectations in the Digital Home. Proceedings of the ACM 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'06) Extended Abstracts, 2006: 568-573.

McDonald, D. W. Radical Appropriation: The Configurations of Wireless Networking in a Community Group. Workshop on Supporting Appropriation Work: Approaches for the 'Reflective' User. The 9th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (ECSCW’05), 2005.

Hong, J. I., G. Boriello, J. A. Landay, D. W. McDonald, B. N. Schilit, J. D. Tygar. Privacy and Security in the Location-enhanced World Wide Web. UbiComp Communities: Privacy as Boundary Negotiation Workshop. The Fifth International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp 2003), 2003.

McDonald, D. W. Social Issues in Self-Provisioned Metropolitan Area Networks. Workshop on Ad-Hoc Wireless Networking. The 2002 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'02), 2002.

Reddy, M.C., D. McDonald, and W. Pratt. The Promise and Problems of Wireless Adoption in a Teaching Hospital. Workshop on Technologies that Cross Boundaries: Exploring the Gap between Wireless Networks, Bits, Interfaces and Mobile Work Practices. ACM 2000 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW '00), 2000.

Ackerman, M. S., D. McDonald, W. Lutters and J. Muramatsu. Recommenders for Expertise Management. Workshop on Recommender Systems: Algorithms and Evaluation. ACM International Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval (SIGIR '99), 1999.

McDonald, D. W. Recommending Expertise in an Organizational Setting. Doctoral Consortium Paper. Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Human Factors (CHI '99) Extended Abstracts, 1999: 63-64.

Parts of books (chapters in edited books)

Javanmardi, S., D. W. McDonald, R. Caruana, S. Forouzan, and C. V. Lopes. Learning To Detect Vandalism in Social Content Systems: A Study On Wikipedia Vandalism Detection in Wikipedia. in Erdem, Özyer, Khoury, and Rokne (eds). Studies in Mining Social Networks and Security Informatics. Springer. June 2013.

McDonald, D.W. Let's Shack Up: Getting Serious about GIM. in Erickson, and McDonald, (eds). HCI Remixed: Essays on Works that have Influenced the HCI Community, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. 2008.

Ackerman, M. S., J. S. Boster, W. G. Lutters and D.W. McDonald. Who's There? The Knowledge-Mapping Approximation Project. In Sharing Expertise: Beyond Knowledge Management, Ackerman, Pipek, & Wulf (eds). MIT Press, Cambridge, MA 2003: 159-178.

Books edited

Erickson, T. and D. W. McDonald (eds.) HCI Remixed: Essays on Works that have Influenced the HCI Community. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. 2008.

Patents submitted and/or awarded

US Patent # 7257774. Systems and Methods for Filtering and/or Viewing Collaborative Indexes of Recorded Media. (with Laurent Denoue, Tohru Fuse, Patrick Chiu and Lynn D. Wilcox). Issued August 14, 2007.

Abstracts, letters, non-refereed papers, technical reports

Magazine Columns

Consolvo, S., D. W. McDonald and J. A. Landay. Designing for Behavior Change in Everyday Life. IEEE Computer, June 2009.

Yang J., B. N. Schilit and D. W. McDonald. Activity Recognition for the Digital Home. IEEE Computer, April 2008.

Torrey C. and D. W. McDonald. How-To Web Pages. IEEE Computer, August 2007, 96-97.

McDonald, D. W. Ubiquitous Recommendation Systems. IEEE Computer, October 2003, 111-112.

Abstract

McDonald, D.W. and M. S. Ackerman. Expertise Locating: a Challenge for Recommender Systems. In Who's Who in Recommender Systems from the Workshop on Recommender Systems at the ACM International Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval (SIGIR '01), 2001.

Thesis

McDonald, D. W. (2000) Supporting Nuance in Groupware Design: Moving from Naturalistic Expertise Location to Expertise Recommendation. Ph.D. Thesis, Information and Computer Science Department, University of California, Irvine.

Technical Reports

Kammer, P. J. and D. W. McDonald. Putting Words to Work: Integrating Conversation with Workflow Modeling. Technical Report UCI-ICS-99-30, Information and Computer Science Department, University of California, Irvine. August 1, 1999.

McDonald, D. W. and M. S. Ackerman. Collaborative Refinery: A Collaborative Information Workspace for the World Wide Web. Technical Report 97-03, Information and Computer Science Department, University of California, Irvine. January, 1997.